Ro/Ro Shipping-An Appraisal Of Its Role In Dry Cargo Trade
Although it is only recently that so much attention has been focused on the prospects for ro/ ro shipping, this type of handling has, in fact, been employed for a number of years on both shortsea and deepsea trades—and with every evidence of success. For example, the advantages of direct ship-to-shore links for short-distance ferry operations were demonstrated as much as 30 years ago, although it was not until the mid-1960s that ro/ro operations really became established on a commercial basis, gaining something of a stronghold in Northern European trades. The introduction of the first longdistance r o / r o service on the North Atlantic came s l i g h t ly later, in 1967, owing much to Scandinavian experience and influence.
Since that time, ro/ro operations have been introduced onto most established unitized trades, e.g., Europe / Australia, Australia/Japan, Australia/West Coast U.S., etc.
Basically, the considerable growth of interest in ro/ro so late in the day can be regarded in part as the product of the Middle East situation, where the ability of ro/ro vessels to operate under otherwise impossibly congested conditions has tended to highlight the advantages of this shipping system over others — in brief, a considerable versatility with regard to cargo type and an ability to operate independently of proper terminals or port equipment.
At present, it is certainly the most practical way of overcoming the immediate problems of port congestion in this area, but it is a very costly solution, involving return journeys in ballast and the uneconomic use of tonnage designed for other trades.
However, the demands of this trade have boosted what appears to have been a faltering market for small- and medium-sized ro/ ro vessels, and have encouraged a number of prominent liner operators to invest in large newbuilding tonnage for trades into the area. Protagonists of ro/ro shipping therefore tend to regard this as the beginning of a period of expansion, in which it will continue to make increasing inroads into deepsea general cargo operations. Detractors, however, look on the situation with considerable skepticism. They feel that present usage can by no means guarantee ro/ro a permanent foothold even on Middle East trades, when faced with the competition from cellular lines which should follow the commissioning of new port facilities, and this view tends to be supported by the widely held belief that poor utilization of capacity makes ro/ro less economic over long distances.
How valuable then is ro/ro shipping in the present world market? Certainly its present use on both deepsea and shortsea trades, its proven usefulness under difficult conditions, and the considerable ingenuity which is continually being expended on the design of these ships would all suggest a growing importance, justifying an in-depth assessment of the role of this type of vessel in dry cargo trade. As its title suggests, this is the main purpose of the present survey—"Ro/ Ro Shipping—An Appraisal of its Role in Dry Cargo Trade" — although it is also concerned with other aspects of the acquisition and operation of this type of ship.
It does also attempt to offer some answer to the questions posed above, i.e., can ro/ro compete with cellular or even general cargo vessels on long-distance trades, or will it continue to be primarily a shortsea phenomenon?
The number of ro/ro vessels in operation is increasing rapidly, and in the shortsea trade, certainly, their future would seem assured. In Northern Europe, for instance, there is evidence of a steadily rising demand for ro/ro capacity, which has encouraged investment in new freight tonnage, which is operated alongside a growing fleet of new generation, large multipurpose passenger/ vehicle ferries. There is also an increasing interest worldwide in small ro/ro tonnage for shortsea, coastal and feeder services, notably among third world countries in South America, Asia, North Africa, etc.
It is in the deepsea trades, however, that the prospects for ro/ro are more uncertain. With cellular vessels predominating on established unitized trades, they account for only some 15-20 percent of total unit handling capacity at present. While the orderbook indicates a growing interest in the large ship sector of the ro/ ro market, the weight of containership tonnage due to come on-stream makes it unlikely that its position will change, at least in the next few years. Containers are evidently the predominant element in unitized trade, and an analysis of unit costs on any specific trade reveals ro/ro shipping at a disadvantage, which increases with distance. However, for a large number of non-containerizable cargoes which lend themselves to ro/ro handling, e.g., heavy or awkward loads, timber, wheeled cargo, etc., ro/ro is generally recognized as providing a fast, efficient and therefore economic means of transportation. It is impossible to deny that ro/ro does have a future on the deepsea trades, but it will necessarily be limited.
Summarizing the contents of the HPD survey "Ro/Ro Shipping — An Appraisal of its Role in Dry Cargo Trade," it covers, in its 122 pages of text, tables and charts: The development of ro/ro as part of a widespread movement toward unitization, and a brief comparison of ro/ro with other modes of unit transportation — containerships, barge carriers, pallet ships.
The growth of the ro/ro fleet and the impetus behind its development, identifying the main centers of interest in this type of tonnage, and the extension of operational patterns, which has had a fundamental influence on design.
The various classes of ro/ro vessel, ranging from the shortsea combined passenger/freight ferry and pure ro/ro-cargo ferry, to the highly developed deepsea designs, including discussion of dimensions, speed, cargo-handling capability, etc., and considering the difference in employment for each of these types of vessel.
The potential size of the ro/ro fleet, examing trends in newbuilding orders, and in the potential employment of contracted tonnage.
An examination of the shortsea ro/ro operations, looking at the ownership of vessels, major routes and cargo types, and the progress which has been made in ship design to meet the demands of these trades, with special reference to the Northern European operation.
A review of the major deepsea trades, and the vessels which have been built — or are being built — to serve them. Cargo capacity, vessel dimensions and other vessel characteristics are detailed in a systematic manner, and the c o n t r i b u t i o n of ro/ro space to these trades, by comparison with cellular capacity, is discussed.
The development of ro/ro services into congested ports, describing the onset of congestion and the usefulness of ro/ro handling and indicating the extent of ro/ro and other services into the Middle East and Nigeria.
The cost of acquiring ro/ro vessels — with special reference to ro/ro cargo vessels, both deepsea and shortsea types — including discussion of newbuilding and second-hand costs and comparing them with equivalent prices for containerships and general cargo vessels.
The operational outgoings experienced by operators of ro/ro tonnage, including items such as manning, insurance, repairs and maintenance, etc., and offering comparison with costs for other vessel types.
The trading patterns of ro/ro vessels, examining vessel efficiency, possible shortcomings in this type of tonnage through examining their performance on various trades, and offering comparison with cellular and other tonnage.
"Ro / Ro Shipping — An Appraisal of its Role in Dry Cargo Trade," priced at U.S. $160 for all overseas orders, or £75 for U.K. orders, is available from HPD Shipping Publications, 34 Brook Street, Mayfair, London W1Y 2LL, England.
Other stories from October 1977 issue
- Ocean Orders Three Cargo Liners From British Shipyard page: 4
- $11-Million Award To Raymond Int'l For Dock Work In Nigeria page: 4
- Shipyards Will Bid On Matzer-Designed Ro/Ro Containership page: 6
- James A. Farrell Jr. Receives Admiral Of The Ocean Sea (AOTOS) Award page: 6
- Bethlehem Beaumont To Build Teledyne Drilling Platform page: 6
- Newport News Lays Keel For First ULCC In $418-Million Contract page: 6
- Chesapeake Corporation Names Elmer Curfman Marine Superintendent page: 7
- LNG Shipping— What Prospects Now? page: 8
- Newport News Delivers Nuclear-Powered Aircraft Carrier Dwight D. Eisenhower page: 10
- American Bureau Of Shipping Elects Johnston President page: 10
- DeLong Corporation Appoints Ogden Chief Engineer page: 10
- Dockside To Represent Burmeister & Wain In Southern California page: 11
- Sun Company Names Maling Vice President page: 11
- Atlantic Sandblasting Receives Fourteen-Ship Mexican Contract page: 12
- Bethlehem Steel Names Thomas Robinson To Central Technical Post page: 14
- Paul Atkinson Retires, Peter Hepp Elected Sun Ship President page: 14
- Todd To Build Santa Fe Pipelaying Vessel page: 15
- OCEANS '77 Conference Set For October 17-18-19 page: 16
- Hitachi Delivers 508,731-DWT Esso Atlantic —Largest Ship Ever Built In Japan page: 18
- Alco Power Southwest Headquarters In New And Larger Houston Location page: 18
- Zapata Names Four Senior Executives To New Posts page: 18
- Booklet Describes Vinyl Coatings For Corrosion Control page: 18
- Crowley Subsidiary Awarded $39-Million Cool Barge Contract page: 20
- ABS President Foresees Trend Toward Nuclear Merchant Ships By 1990 page: 21
- Oosterhuis Industries Supplies American Brons Diesel Engines To Five New Offshore Tugs Ship Buying Spree page: 22
- Carrington Launches Self-Unloading Cement Carrier page: 22
- Bird-Johnson Appoints National And Regional Sales Managers page: 23
- Ro/Ro Shipping-An Appraisal Of Its Role In Dry Cargo Trade page: 24
- Leif Hoegh Orders Two Multipurpose Ships From Japanese Yard page: 25
- Hyundai Shipbuilding Licensed To Build B&W Diesel Engines page: 25
- Chinese On Worldwide Ship Buying Spree page: 26
- Senior USCG Advisor Robert Lakey Joins Helge Ringdal, Inc. page: 26
- Five Companies Form Technology Group To Build Canadian Ships page: 27
- Intermarine Brochure Fully Describes New Marine Radar page: 28
- Shipowners Seek To Enjoin Alaska State Tanker Law page: 28
- Avondale Launches 165,000-DWT Tanker For Standard Oil (Ohio) Alaskan Service page: 29
- R.E. Derecktor Delivers Tug To Great Lakes Dredge & Dock Co. page: 30
- Northeast Marine Terminal Announces Start Of Affiliate Operation In Savannah, Ga. page: 31
- American President Lines Names Capt. E.J. McClafferty page: 31
- Maine Maritime Academy Shipping Management Seminar Labeled Outstanding Success page: 32
- Nuclear Merchant Ship Environmental Impact Analysis Published page: 34
- Paper On Drydock Designs Presented At San Diego Meeting page: 34
- Schneider And Moody Named To New Posts At Moore-McCormack Lines page: 34
- Burmeister & Wain Opens Marine Service Center In Hong Kong page: 34
- Packet Offered On Hiring Filipino Seamen page: 35
- Prudential Lines Names Captain George Evans page: 35
- Brochure Describes Removal Of Smoke From Air Vents page: 35
- Maritime Industry Metric Conversion Study Is Available page: 36
- Interocean Conducts Inert Gas Course page: 36
- Gotaverken Delivers Third Tanker For Iraq page: 36
- Crossocean Shipping Names Thomas Giardino page: 36
- Johnston Vertical Pumps Names Hoffert Marine page: 36
- MarAd To Study Liner Segment Of U.S. Merchant Fleet page: 37
- United States Lines Names Capt. Yarborough Assistant Marine Supt. page: 39
- Varo Names Johnson Marine Coordinator page: 39
- American Club Triples Tonnage In Five Years page: 39
- Device Prevents Cable From Becoming Tangled With Buoy Lines page: 42
- Sea Power Symposium Set For Los Angeles November 4, 1977 page: 42
- MarAd Releases 15 Technical Reports On Gas Turbines page: 42
- Bath Iron Works Appoints Igo Jekkals page: 43
- Webb Institute Receives Grant For Research Facilities page: 43
- Mechling States All Modes Necessary For Sound System page: 44
- Gonsoulin Industries New Mother Company For LeBeouf Towing page: 44
- ABS Reports Increase In Classifications page: 44
- APL Team To Analyze Systems Controlling Steam Plants On Ships page: 45
- Campbell Delivers Second Offshore Vessel To Biehl page: 46
- Stow Introduces New Remote Valve Control Flexible Shaft page: 46
- U.S. Navy Officers Assigned To Kings Point page: 46
- Owners Strongly Oppose Federal Financing Bank Control Of Title XI page: 47
- World's First Naval Exposition Set For Netherlands June '78 page: 48
- Eleven New Members Elected To American Bureau Of Shipping page: 48
- CCL Shipcare Limited New Marine Service page: 48
- Camar Develops Blowers Designed For Shipboard Inlet Gas Systems page: 50
- New Maritime Firm Port Fabricators, Inc. Active In Louisiana page: 50
- Report Shows 101 Plants Locate Waterside In First Quarter Of 1977 page: 51
- Edwin G.B. Terry Joins Tidewater Marine Service page: 53
- Waterproofed Engines On Self-Righting Lifeboat Restart Following Capsize page: 53
- Port Of St. Louis Propeller Club Elects Robert Patrick page: 54
- Lloyd's Register Announces Major Changes For 1978 page: 54
- Maxon Marine Industries Delivers Specially Designed Towboat To J.L. Shiely Company page: 55
- SNAME Publishes 'Gas Trials Guide For LNG Vessels' page: 55
- DeLong Jack Systems Described In Brochure page: 55
- James J. Bolton Elected President Jered Industries page: 56
- North American Philips Offers New Radio Telex System For Shipboard Communications page: 58
- Mangone Delivers 185-Foot Supply Vessel To Briley page: 58
- Britain's P&O Group Designs New Type Naval Vessel To Be Built In Private Yards page: 60
- Equitable Lays Keel For First Of Three Breakbulk Vessels For American Atlantic Shipping page: 60
- Study Of Superports And SBMs For Tankers Published page: 63
- Blue Water Marine Forms New Division —George Gray Named page: 64
- Buenos Aires And Manila Added To ABS Network Of Technical Offices page: 64
- American Heavy Lift Shipping Company Names Two Top Executives page: 64
- W.L. Bull Jr. Named Marine Transportation Director For NLFI page: 65
- Marco's 25th Crabber Readied For King Crab Season Opening page: 66